Saudi Arabia is a country in the Middle East bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. Extensive coastlines provide leverage on shipping, especially crude oil, through the Persian Gulf and Suez Canal. Neighboring countries include Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The geography of Saudi Arabia is primarily desert with rugged mountains in the southwest. The government system is a monarchy; the chief of state and head of government is the king and prime minister. Saudi Arabia is a member of the League of Arab States (Arab League) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).