Peru is a country in South America. It has a coastline on the Pacific Ocean and is bordered by Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. The Andes Mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean. Many Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks, and eastern lowlands contain tropical forests which are part of the Amazon basin. The government system is a presidential republic; the chief of state and the head of government is the president. Peru has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Peru is a member of the Andean Community (ANCOM), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).